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Australian Citizenship

Australian Citizenship

If you’ve created a life for yourself in Australia, becoming a citizen gives you the chance to officially declare your allegiance to the country and its people. You can vote in elections and are protected from having your visa revoked, both of which you wouldn’t have as a permanent resident.

Australian citizenship is granted at birth to children of citizens and permanent residents.

Otherwise, you’ll need to submit an application for Australian citizenship. This page explains the two primary avenues to Australian citizenship, as well as several alternative options for those in very special situations.

Citizenship by descent or adoption

The following situations may make you eligible for Australian citizenship by birth or adoption:

  • You didn’t get the Aussie treatment at birth; and
  • You were born in Australia OR one of your parents is an Australian citizen.
  • You were adopted from a nation other than Australia in accordance with the Hague Convention or a bilateral arrangement; and
  • When you were adopted, one of your parents already held Australian citizenship.

A parent who is an Australian citizen by descent or adoption must have lived in Australia continuously for at least 2 years.

Citizenship by conferral – general requirements

Changes to who can apply for Australian citizenship through conferral were announced by the government on April 20, 2017, although those changes have yet to be implemented. At now, the following eligibility requirements remain in effect:

  1. You are an adult above the age of 18.
  2. You’ve established yourself as an indefatigable Aussie citizen.
  3. After at least a year in the country, you are considered a permanent resident.
  4. You’re a legal resident of the country (have been in Australia for at least 4 years).
  5. You’ve successfully completed a written exam about Australian culture and values.
  6. You have impeccable morals.

Citizenship by conferral – residency requirement

You need to have been physically present in Australia for at least four years as a general residency requirement. The following are some of the many cases where this is not the case:

  1. For the four years prior to your application, you can be away from Australia for a combined maximum of 12 months.
  2. For the 12 months prior to your application, a total of 3 months may have been spent outside of Australia.
  3. No incarceration during the past four years will exclude you unless it would be unfair to do so under the given circumstances.
  4. If you can show that meeting the residency requirement would place you at a considerable disadvantage or hardship, you may be eligible to have it waived.
  5. If you are the spouse or de facto partner of an Australian citizen and you have spent time outside of Australia but maintained close associations with Australia during that time, you may be exempt from the residency requirement.
  6. One can still be regarded “in Australia” even if their line of work regularly takes them beyond the country, such as a flight attendant.

Different Paths to Citizenship

The following are additional pathways to Australian citizenship:

  1. If you or your parent(s) were born in Australia and you or your parent(s) have been permanent residents of Australia for at least 10 years.
  2. If you are an Australian permanent resident and under the age of 18, you qualify.
  3. One of your parents was an Australian citizen at one point, but they renounced their citizenship because being a dual citizen was not an option at the time.
  4. If you were born in Australia and don’t currently hold, have ever held, or are eligible to get citizenship in any other nation, then you are an Australian citizen by birth.

In order to participate in activities that are beneficial to Australia, permanent residents are encouraged to apply for citizenship.

To that end, Gem Services is here to assist you.

There are various nuances and exceptions in citizenship legislation. If you aren’t sure if you’re already a citizen or what steps you need to take to become one, our knowledgeable staff is here to help. To increase your chances of being granted citizenship, we can also help you submit a thorough and correct application.

Visa Details

Visa Subclass:
No S/C
Length of stay:
From AUD 490
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